“We can’t draft a new world and print it out”

The endless fascination with techno solutions subjected scrutiny from Dezeen

"We can't draft a new world and print it out"

Opinion: in this week’s column, Sam Jacob argues that instead of liberating us, 3D printing will merely “bind us even more closely to fewer and fewer corporations”.

If this is the year of anything, it’s the year of 3D-printing boosterism (even more than last year was). The overarching narrative surrounding 3D printing presents it as a liberating technology. It argues that the technology will free us from organised, centralised production of the industrial era. And it suggests that this radical break will in turn transform the political, economic and social structures that industrialisation precipitated.

There is a latent dream somewhere in this rhetoric, something like an electrified version of William Morris’ strange rural-futurist novel News From Nowhere. Morris’ protagonist goes to bed in the industrial 1890’s but mysteriously wakes into a post-revolutionary, proto-socialist nu-medievalist London.

It’s a London whose citizens craft themselves beautiful things in fulfilling equality. We imagine now, perhaps, our own sci-fi version of this utopia. A future where digital production technologies set us free. Where we are surrounded by sequentially layered self expression and customisation. Where we return, thanks to electronics and robotics, to an idealised folk-art state.

Yet of course, we’ve been on the cusp of techno-liberation before. Remember those wild, free years when the internet was young? Limitless fields of freedoms seemed to open up through the window of a squawking dialup modem. The information enclosures of Facebook, Google, Apple et al have long put paid to that sensation.

Let’s face it: 3D printing might give us a million new ways to make objects, but it is unlikely to undo our late capitalist relationship with objects. If the history of the internet is a lesson, then technology only accelerates us further towards the horizon of consumerism, deeper into the depths of digital modernity.

Think, for example, of the labour politics of 3D printing. There is something undeniably appealing (to designers) in the removal of the production process between the designer and their artifact, a shortening of the distance between their imagination and its physical product. But part of this appeal is that it shifts the value of the object toward the designer rather than the labour of production. It’s the total realisation of Ruskin’s critique of industrial capital’s division of labour, where ‘thought’ and ‘work’ are entirely estranged, where personality and invention are ringfenced by design rather than shared with production.

Inevitably it won’t be a democratic, distributed version of the technology that takes hold. It’ll be an iTuned, DRMified ecology that will bind us even more closely to fewer and fewer corporations. If we’re lucky enough to escape that fate, it will only be into the arms of a Pirate Bay of objects where we’ll find the 3D equivalents of screener films, dodgy 3D scans and partially ripped bootlegs.

Here’s another scenario, another possible version of a 3D-printed world. This one is a world that physically resembles the contents of your hard drive (if you are anything like me, that is). A world of half-completed files, a thousand drafts, weird duplicates, super high-res and hyper-compressed versions of the same file and lost aliases. A world made in the image of the detritus around the outlet of a photocopier. A world of copies with no originals. A world of undifferentiated, undetailed substance, endless landscapes of half-finished Sketchup models as though Google’s 3D warehouse had dumped itself back into the physical world. In other words, a super-proliferated Junkspace that would make even Junkspace blush.

Technology itself will not rescue us from our circumstance. We can’t draft a new world and print it out. In fact, the focus that digital design places on the object itself as an autonomous object, floating in its electronic amniotic sac, is itself a mirage of technology; a non-verbal argument about the nature of objects and society as much as a Fordist production line ever was.

If there is any hope of resurrecting Morris-esque resistance or Ruskinian ideology in a digital age, it is to recognise, as they did, that objects are not simply form but intrinsically politicised artifacts. And so are the technologies we use to produce them.

But 3D printing propels the idea of design-as-form to an extreme conclusion. It makes a persuasive argument for design as the production of autonomous techno-formalist objects. 3D printing might change how we make the world, but it won’t change the world itself.

For Driverless Cars to Succeed Wireless Infrastructure is Crucial

For the world envisioned in Minority Report with its driverless cars and big brother surveillance systems to become a reality (for better or worse?) much improved infrastructure is needed – two recent articles give indication of the drive to achieve this- at least in American Cities and definitely for the commercial benefit of the automakers and cyber companies shareholders – so I again have my doubts about the real benefit of continued reliance on private vehicles

Driverless cars from movie Minority Report

The first article is from Urban TImes giving insight into the need and possibility of alternative technologies to wireless in order for the machines to communicate with each other

At CES 2013 driverless cars were big news. And while the likes of Toyota and Google are working on the technology inside the cars to make these a reality – William Webb, IEEE fellow and CTO of Neul knows that the wireless infrastructure needs to be up to scratch too.

IEEE experts have recently identified driverless cars as the most viable form of intelligent transport, set to dominate the roadway by 2040 and spark dramatic changes in vehicular travel.

Related: Google’s Driverless Cars Now Legal in Nevada

As far as I can tell, there is one key barrier to the widespread adoption of intelligent transport (aside from driver and passenger acceptance of automated vehicles) and that is the infrastructure of our roads and vehicles. More specifically, the wireless infrastructure.

Monitoring traffic flow is relatively easy, as is deducing where congestion is occurring and working out where to reroute cars. However, there is still a big piece missing from the intelligent transport puzzle – a way to get information from sensors to controls centres, and from there back to cars, traffic lights, and roadside signage. Wireless connectivity is the only option when facing this challenge. Whilst this might seem obvious in the case of moving vehicles, the cost of installing the wires for sensors in stationary items such as bridges of car-parking spaces is completely prohibitive – making wireless a big issue.

Self-driving car Toyota Prius prototype. Via Google

The second article is  note from Smart Planet a few days ago highlights the amount of effort being put into these machine communication systems – again – one has no doubts about whose interests this is in – only a  nagging suspicion that this all looks very familiar in terms of science fiction – anyone see a likeness to the Matrix here – machines in control – humans in servitude?

Google’s secretive wireless network could impact urban connectivity, Wi-Fi

By  | January 25, 2013, 2:19 AM PST

Google’s secretive wireless networking project could have severe repercussions on the consumer market it seems.

Filing an application to build an “experimental” wireless network on the tech giant’s Mountain View headquarters, Google is petitioning the FCC to allow 50 base stations to be built on the campus, in order to support 200 user devices for an “experimental radio service.”

The application and proposal state that the area covered will be close to the firm’s Android building, but small, indoor base stations will only reach up to 200 meters, and outdoor systems will go no further than a kilometer. In total, the network will have a two-mile radius.

The experimental network remains under wraps for now, but who knows what Google is planning for the future. As the Wall Street Journal notes, the FCC request may be in relation to the tech giant’s partnership with Dish Networks.

The filing, uncovered by Wireless engineer Steve Crowley, would provide coverage for 2524 to 2625 megahertz frequencies — which wouldn’t be compatible with most of the consumer mobile devices currently available, such as Apple’s iPhone or smartphones running Google’s Android operating system. It would, however, work well in densely populated areas.

Bill Moggridge 1943-2012

Bill Moggridge one of the design worlds greats has passed on after an inspirational life as foundering member of IDEO and author of Designing Interactions 2007 – and Designing Media 2010 here is  tribute to his life from dezeen

Bill Moggridge 1943-2012

Dezeen News: Industrial designer Bill Moggridge, who created the first laptop computer, co-founded global design company IDEO and more recently was director of the Cooper-Hewitt museum in New York, has died aged 69.

Moggridge’s pioneering work on early laptop computers earned him the 2010 Prince Philip Designers Prize. Earlier that year he was named director of the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum in New York.

Design Museum App Collection: computers

Hear Design Museum director Deyan Sudjic talking about Moggridge’s  1984 GRiD Compass 1101 laptop (above) in our movie.

Industrial designer Bill Moggridge

Here’s a statement from the Cooper-Hewitt:


Bill Moggridge, director of the Smithsonian’s Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum since 2010, died Sept. 8, following a battle with cancer. He was 69 years old. Designer of the first laptop computer and co-founder of IDEO, the renowned innovation and design firm, Moggridge pioneered interaction design and integrated human factors into the design of computer software and hardware.

“All of us at the Smithsonian mourn the loss of a great friend, leader and design mind,” said Smithsonian Secretary Wayne Clough. “In his two short years as director of Cooper-Hewitt, Bill transformed the museum into the Smithsonian’s design lens on the world, and we are forever grateful for his extraordinary leadership and contributions.”

As Cooper-Hewitt’s fourth director, Moggridge oversaw the only museum in the United States devoted exclusively to historic and contemporary design. In this role, he worked to establish the museum as the pre-eminent national design resource, enhance its profile as one of the world’s leading authorities on the role of design in everyday life and develop and present exhibitions—both real and virtual.

“During his tenure, Bill led the museum to the highest exhibition attendance numbers on record, pioneered bringing design into the K-12 classroom and dramatically increased digital access to the collection through vehicles like the Google Art Project,” said Richard Kurin, Smithsonian Under Secretary for History, Art and Culture. “His innovative vision for the future of the museum will be realized upon reopening, and his foresight will impact museum visitors and design thinkers of tomorrow. He will be greatly missed.”

“Bill’s death is a tremendous loss to the Cooper-Hewitt family,” said Paul Herzan, chairman of the board of trustees. “We will all continue to work together to see that his strategic vision is implemented.  As a designer, Bill set in motion a retelling of the story of design—its place in history and future possibilities—within the bold and interactive context of a renovated Cooper-Hewitt campus.”

“Beloved by the museum staff and the design community at large, Bill touched the lives of so many through his wise council, boundary-pushing ideas and cheerful camaraderie,” said Caroline Baumann, associate director of the museum. “A true team builder and convener by nature, his efforts at Cooper-Hewitt and throughout the design world will be forever remembered.”

Read More at dezeen

And The New York Times

Design Research: A Methodology for Creating User Identified Services

 Tricia Wang’s explanation of what Design Research might be about intersects and why it matters with my current thinking on how the need for direct involvement with actual people who are affected and need a help with articulating their needs to designers, planners and authorities and to take part in how to evolve this experiential knowledge and process. A type of Ethnomethodology is evolving. First  seen on  Scoop.it! actions de concertation citoyenne 

For a long time, I’ve wanted to understand how ethnographically driven research is different from market research.  While I intuitively understood the differences between the two, I didn’t take the time to fully sort it out.

I finally found someone who not only clearly explains the differences, but provides greater clarity and depth to my understanding of design research.

I love the way Panthea Lee of reBoot  contrasts market research and design research in, Design Research: What Is It and Why Do It? Panthea explains that the primary difference is that market research treats people as consumers – wage earners with an income to dispose on a product or service, while design research treats people as users  – humans who are trying to fulfill everyday needs through what means they see as possible.

“Market research identifies and acts upon optimal market and consumer leverage points to achieve success. Its definition of success is not absolute, though metrics are often financial. Design research, on the other hand, is founded in the belief that we already know the optimal market and consumer leverage points: human needs. Unearthing and satisfying those needs is thus the surest measure of success. Through this process, we earn people’s respect and loyalty.”

Panthea’s essay doesn’t put a value judgement on market research, rather it makes the boundaries between both types of research more explicit. This clarity allows researchers the space to be explicit about when they are wearing the market research or the design research hat. Sometimes a project needs to be considered from a market and a design perspective. So this is when this chart below becomes super useful!

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India on Wheels

For many non Indian visitors being driven around in India is like Russian Roulette, but as we all find out it is our preconceptions that are  chalenged and it seems very little damage is done to our bodies – the rate of car sales and the difficulty of providing public infrastructure in some parts of india must make one wonder about the  divide between the public good and business interests – in this article we see the Modernist tendency of focusing on the object a car and its appeal to the individual broadened to include its social significance but little or no consideration of its impact on the urban fabric it inhabits – at this stage design still sees its role in a narrow funnel of proving value to individuals and companies profits from where it derives its own functions and income – we have yet to understand the implications of this consumerist approach applied to the rest of the planets population. A good design article by Harsha Kutare at DESIgn MASALA

The Indian automobile industry is set to become the sixth largest passenger vehicle producer in the world, growing 16-18 percent to sell around three million units in the course of 2011-12. The passenger vehicles sales trend has shown an exponential growth in past few years and it is expected to grow further in coming years.

The Indian market presents several challenges to car manufacturers and dealers. After researching a bit online about the current car scene in India and talking to car owners, I came up with the factors that make the Indian car market stand out from others in the world.’

Harsha goes on to describe the factors he sees as influencing the Indian automobile market naming  Traffic and Road conditions; Way Finding; Huge numbers of first time buyers; Financial factors; Social Influencers; Cultural Significance/Unique features as areas which make the Indian market different from others

Social Influencers: There is lot of social influence from friends, family or relatives when it comes to buying a car. Buyers reach out to their social circle for recommendations regarding car models and dealerships. Some of the online platforms that are influencing people’s buying decision arewww.carwale.comwww.teambhp.comwww.autocarindia.comwww.cardekho.com

Cars make a statement about the owner’s personality hence buyers are very cautious about the cars that they pick. Brands also play a vital part in projecting a brand image for e.g. Honda equals Pride, Mahindra is seen as a rugged brand and Maruti Suzuki equals good value for money whereas Mercedes signifies luxury. Brands carefully pick actors, sportspersons or celebrities as their brand ambassadors as Indian consumers, mainly youth is influenced by testimonials of celebrities.

First cars for most of the buyers are mid range hatchbacks. In most cases the buyer is the first person in the family to own a car. He takes his driving lessons from a driving school and prefers something easy to maneuver within the city with low maintenance costs and a great mileage.

Making Sense of Our Non-Linear World:The Challenge: Be Realistic, Imagine The Impossible

How we can deal with complexity a book review from URBAN TIMES

What Do These Have In Common?

car company built around a global community as an organisation, enabled by combining flex manufacturing techniques, open source platforms, open legal frameworks and social communication technologies premised upon cooperation, fuelled by the desire to be a great company and green; that can build cars 5 times faster at 100 times less the capital costs.

A crisis management platform and organisation born out of the Kenyan post-election crisis of 2008 that can record critical information of events unfolding on the ground via a blend of location-based data, eyewitness accounts and mobile telephony, from often hard to reach places which visualises those unfolding events so that others can act and direct action at internet speeds. And now utilised for free in many parts of the world. Or, the largest organic diary farm in Britain, that has evolved a methodology that allows it to remain autonomous, profitable and sustainable in a market that is acutely volatile, because large-scale agricultural farming is mostly run on an oil-based economy, plus diary farmers are at the calculating mercy of the marketing needs and whimsies of large chain supermarkets.

A New Social / Organisational / Economic Model

Be realistic, imagine the impossible 

They are collectively representative of a new reality of living, working and organising. These organisations or companies have quested to find a means to serve humanity better, to search for meaning in the work that they and others do, and offer up new viable alternatives for the ways that, in the past, these things were done. They seek an outcome that is more distributive of wealth, ideas and resources. In fact, one might argue an outcome that is more humane and community centric. Rather than premised upon the extraction of wealth, and resources, whether they be physical, mineral or otherwise, these very different initiatives represent both moral courage and a collective purpose, if you will. And why is that important? Because it does not matter if you are an employer, a worker, VC fund, an NGO, an organisation, a local council or a government, you will miss out on the energies and capabilities of your people who will increasingly seek those new realities to discover a better way of living, working and being, when better and viable alternatives are on offer. And the fact is we now have the possibility to truly transform our world, to be more lightweight, sustainable and humane, through the tools, capabilities, language and processes at our fingertips. As Tony Judt argued:

‘Why do we experience such difficulty even imaging a different sort of society? Why is it beyond us to conceive a different set of arrangements to our common advantage?’ [Tony Judt, Ill Fares the Land, Allen Lane, 2010.]

Image by Alan Moore

 

The Cultural Challenge

 

The biggest challenge we face is cultural. How we contextualise (make sense of) the world around us determines how we engage and what action we take. Those actions then determine the outcomes we must live with and this requires a change from our industrial mindset and behaviour to one that is more cognisant of what is now seen as a non-linear world. This is where I want to return to the idea that what we face is a design problem, where answers exist not at an unattainable theoretical level but on the floors of our factories, in the streets of our towns and cities, the classes of our schools, the waiting rooms of our hospitals. These answers will manifest themselves as true acts of creation, originating new ways of getting stuff done, informed by the decisions we collectively take. So in re-designing the world, we need human creativity in the sense of the capacity to ‘make’, we need visionary leadership in the sense of making a difference. And we seek the craftsman’s critical eye, steady hand and creative mind. It is this process of seeing – realising new pathways to success, by bringing two ‘unlikes’ (new information, tools, processes etc.) together in close adjacency – that we create, and make new things. Then we can meaningfully apply that capability.

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Designing for Adaptable Futures (DAF) Winners Announced

While we are struggling o come to grips with the changes wrought by the older generation of which i am one, we are often exited to see the work of the future designers of the world and how we might look afresh at our problems from bustler

The Adaptable Futures (AF) group at Loughborough University in England today announced the winners of its first international student competition, Designing for Adaptable Futures (DAF). The competition asked students to illustrate how the life of their proposal – whether product, building or urban intervention – would unfold through time: over an hour, day, year, decade, or perhaps a century.

The international jury of architects included Charles Holland, Director (FAT Architecture); Daisy Froud, Director (AOC); Megumi Matsubara, Founder (Assistant, Japan); Søren Nielson, Director (Vankunsten Architects, Denmark); David Rowley, Director (Nightingale Associates); and Paul Warner, Director (3D Reid Architects).

Joint First Prize: Factory Home by Johnny Killok from AdaptableFutures on Vimeo.

Top submissions were shortlisted, from which the judges selected three winning submissions (a joint first place and a third place) along with five submissions deserving honorable mention. Overall the competition received over 150 submissions from 26 countries around the world.

VIEW THIS COMPETITION BRIEF:

Joint First Prize: Factory Home by Johnny Killok: Still from the Factory Home film: work mode

Joint First Prize: Factory Home by Johnny Killok: Still from the Factory Home film: work mode

Joint First Prize: Factory Home
by Johnny Killok (University of Westminster, UK)

Factory Home focuses on reshaping the live/work spatial relationship as part of a ‘third industrial revolution’. The proposal organizes the building as three distinct zones – living, working and transition which are blurred through the use of flexible modules sliding in and out of the transition zone as needed throughout the day. – boards (PDF)

Joint First Prize: Village Green
by Jeffrey Adjei (University for the Creative Arts Canterbury, UK)

Village Green (for the people by the people) in New Addington proposes several ideas about how to construct transient social structures for a high quality public space which evolve with community needs. The proposal embraces Walter Segal’s concept of self-build and looks extensively at the collaborative process, linking the community with a vast network of charity and government organizations through a continual building process. –boards (PDF)

Joint First Prize: Village Green by Jeffrey Adjei: Village Green's public space

Joint First Prize: Village Green by Jeffrey Adjei: Village Green’s public space

Third Prize: Adaptable Street 
by Maxime Rousseau and Paul Jaquet (Université de Montréal, Canada)

Adaptable Street focuses on exploiting (and expanding) the capacity in our major cities to create and adapt spaces at and around street level, creating ‘thick streets’ for a vibrant mix of uses. The proposal explores how the uses and spaces would transform linearly, seasonally and over time. – boards (PDF)

Third Prize: Adaptable Street by Maxime Rousseau and Paul Jaquet: Sections through street

Click above image to view slideshow
Third Prize: Adaptable Street by Maxime Rousseau and Paul Jaquet: Sections through street

Regarding the winning submissions, Daisy Froud of AOC stated; “I’m really glad that the two joint winners reflect two very different approaches, one more traditionally architectural – it’s a big building with bits that slide, but that is nonetheless rooted in thinking about how people in central London live and work – and one that has more in common with social sculpture, its speculations based on research into a specific cultural and perhaps even ‘small-p political’ context.”

Jury members were inspired by the quality of the visual and narrative ideas presented. David Rowley of Nightingale Associates commented: “I was impressed by the time and effort many of the students put into the submissions, and how effectively they showcased their ideas using both presentation boards and film.  The best submissions fully embraced adaptability with sustainability in its broadest sense, taking into account social and political factors as well as accounting for the visual environment and longevity.”

The integration of time in their design proposal was framed around three criteria presented in the brief: strategies for change (AF frame cycle), building layers and design guidelines (spatial, material and mind set).

Students were allowed to submit two A0 boards and/or a three minute film. The three competition winners will share a £3,500 (US$5,433) cash prize and have been invited to participate and present at this autumn’s AF event in London.

The jury also awarded Honorable Mentions to following five projects:

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Review: ‘Designing for Social Change

The need for co-design, transdisciplinary design or social design, or a host of other names the methodology of interaction with all stakeholders in an inclusive design process which moves beyond the confines of accepted academic and professional disciplines is receiving the attention it deserves, while this review of new book focusses on graphic design for social change, it is relevant for all designers trying to achieve a more holistic and sustainable result in their work.  From [polis}

It is my hope that we are only in the infancy of the “social design” movement — a time when genuine social engagement remains a peripheral niche in the field of design. In “Designing for Social Change” Andrew Shea confirms this hope by demonstrating the enormous potential for growth, professional satisfaction and transformative change that social design wields. In outlining 10 strategies for community engagement, and breathing life into them with two concise case studies apiece, the book inspires and teaches in equal measure.

Each case illustrates the design process from beginning to end, from the design challenge to the engagement and design strategy to outcomes and lessons learned. While clear and striking images of designed booklets, posters and signs abound, photos of communities interacting with and using these products is given priority. As such, this reads as a handbook for action that appeals specifically to graphic designers seeking to engage communities through their work. However, the strategies are broadly applicable to any designer looking to fully inform his or her product with a well-conceived and context-sensitive process.

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Arup wins Chile metro work


(London) Arup has been appointed by Metro de Santiago to lead the concept design of 11 stations in the Chilean capital.
The scope of the project covers some of the most challenging stations on two new lines being built by the operator – Lines 3 and 6 – and the work will involve creating interchanges with existing lines on the metro network.
Metro de Santiago already boasts the most extensive metro system in South America and the project to add Lines 3 and 6 will extend the reach of the network by some 28 stations and 37 km in total. The work will also add capacity to some of the busiest existing metro lines when the new lines open in 2016 / 2017.

Arup Project Director, Leszek Dobrovolsky, said, “We are delighted that Metro de Santiago has appointed Arup to bring our world-class experience to bear on the new lines. Our global expertise in metro systems played a part in winning the work, but it was our ability to respond to local programmes and context, cost and programme constraints that clinched it. This stands as a testament to Arup’s ability to provide cost-effective metro solutions throughout Latin America and across the globe. We are also proud to be working with leaders such as Metro de Santiago who are routinely consulted by other metro operators from around the world wishing to benefit from their operational excellence. They are recognised experts in the field, having won the Metro Award this year for ‘Best Subway System in the Americas’”.

Dobrovolsky notes that Arup’s team have some interesting technical and design challenges ahead as the new lines will run deeper than the existing network. However, he points out that the designers and engineers on the job have all the multidisciplinary skills necessary to meet the challenge in the most cost-effective way.

The scope of Arup’s work covers station planning, tunnel and station ventilation, fire engineering, passenger movement analysis, and optimisation of passenger experience.

Nevada issues Google first license for self-driving car

The future’s, here – its just not evenly distributed yet – to paraphrase William Gibson- the end of traffic jams and the start of Minority Reports automated freeways – and all the visions of a distopian future a la Blade Runner around the corner are banished by your ever ready and willing Google – now they not only know where you are all the time – they’re taking you there! See my other post of today for more of the same story: A warning for mankind: Beware the new Big Brother


AP PHOTO/SANDRA CHEREB
Gov. Brian Sandoval takes a spin in a driverless car Wednesday, July 20, 2011, in Carson City. Sandoval described the experience as “amazing”; he took the test run with a Google engineer and DMV Director Bruce Breslow. They started their trip at the DMV offices in Carson City and went north to Washoe Valley, where they turned around.

COURTESY OF GOOGLE
Google’s Toyota Prius Autonomous Vehicle

CARSON CITY — Nevadans will soon see driverless cars being tested on streets and highways.

Google received the first license Monday from the state Department of Motor Vehicles to test the autonomous vehicles. It is believed to be the first such license issued in the country.

The 2011 Legislature passed the first law in the nation to permit testing of driverless cars. But state regulations require a person behind the wheel and one in the passenger’s seat during tests.

“It’s still a work in progress,” said Tom Jacobs, a DMV spokesman. “The system regulates the brakes, accelerator and steering.”

Google has equipped a test fleet of at least eight vehicles — six Toyota Priuses, an Audi TT and a Lexus RX450h.

License plates issued for driverless cars will have a red background and feature an infinity symbol on the left side.

“I feel using the infinity symbol was the best way to represent the ‘car of the future,’” DMV Director Bruce Breslow said.

DMV officials have been in the vehicles during demonstrations on the Las Vegas Strip and in Carson City. There have been other demonstrations of the technology on the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco and around Lake Tahoe.

The system permits a human driver to take control by stepping on the brake or turning the wheel.

Google says it hopes to market the technology to auto manufacturers. It combines artificial intelligence software, a global positioning system and an array of sensors to navigate its way through traffic.

The DMV says other companies have indicated their desire to test and develop autonomous technology. “Google has a lot of competition,” Jacobs said.